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今年科学突破首推癌症免疫疗法

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发表于 2013-12-21 17:17:28 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
美国《科学》杂志公布2013年十大科学突破 中国科学家参与了两项
今年科学突破首推癌症免疫疗法
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      作为对全球科研成果每年一度的年终盘点,美国《科学》杂志19日公布了其评出的2013年十大科学突破,其中癌症免疫疗法被选为本年度最重要的科学突破。中国科研人员至少对其中两项突破作出了直接贡献。
      癌症免疫疗法只对某些癌症有效
      癌症免疫疗法已有30多年历史,它治疗的是人体免疫系统而非直接针对肿瘤。《科学》杂志认为,癌症研究界在2013年经历巨变,因为酝酿了数十年的癌症免疫疗法终于确定了它的潜力,在临床试验中表现出令人鼓舞的效果。
     《科学》杂志强调,并不确定癌症免疫疗法能否最终取得成功,但其展现出的前景已足以让它登上本年度科学突破的榜首。
     《科学》杂志新闻总编辑蒂姆·阿彭策勒说:“癌症免疫疗法有着广阔的前景,这一点不会错。到目前为止,这一利用免疫系统来攻击肿瘤的策略只对某些癌症及若干病人有效,因此重要的一点是不要夸大它会有立竿见影的益处。但许多癌症专家确信,他们正在目睹一种重要的癌症治疗新模式的诞生。”
      中国科研人员参与了两项研究
      今年的十大突破中至少有两项有中国科研人员参与。首先是结构生物学指导疫苗设计。美国国家过敏症和传染病研究所与中国厦门大学合作,利用结构生物学技术对最常见的儿童呼吸道病毒——呼吸道合胞病毒进行操控,设计出一种免疫原,据此研制的新型疫苗已在小鼠及恒河猴试验中表现出效果。
      参与研究的厦门大学教授夏宁邵说,呼吸道合胞病毒是一种可导致肺炎的传染性病毒,是5岁以下儿童住院的最主要原因之一。全球范围内,继疟疾之后,该病毒是一岁以下婴幼儿的第二大杀手。虽然医学专家对这种病毒的研究已有40多年,但始终未能开发出有效疫苗。
      另一项突破是人类为什么要睡觉。美国罗切斯特大学通过老鼠研究发现,大脑内有一个独特的“垃圾处理系统”,睡眠时这个系统能够高效清除代谢废物,这说明大脑自我“大扫除”属于睡眠的主要目的之一。这项研究的第一作者是罗切斯特大学的中国籍博士后谢璐璐,她曾就读于南京医科大学。
      其他7项突破性科学成就
      基因编辑技术CRISPR:这项成果是在细菌中发现的,研究人员现在将它作为一种外科手术刀,已有多个研究团队用它来操控不同物种细胞的基因组。
      钙钛矿太阳能电池:这种新一代太阳能电池材料在过去一年中获得大量关注,它比传统的硅电池要更便宜且更易生产。
      脑透明成像3D技术CLARITY:这种成像技术在2013年改变了研究人员观察大脑这种复杂器官的方式,使脑组织变得透明,让神经细胞得到充分展示。
      迷你器官:研究人员今年在体外生长与人类似的迷你“类器官”方面取得了显著进步。“类器官”包括肝芽、迷你肾及微型大脑。
      宇宙射线的起源:天文学家证实宇宙射线并非宇宙中的“孤儿”,它们实际上“出生在”爆炸的恒星之中,是超新星残余物。
      加了咖啡因的克隆:科学家无法从克隆的人类胚胎中得到干细胞,直到他们在一些关键时间点上给易损的人类卵细胞添加了起稳定作用的咖啡因。
      微生物对人体健康的影响:对数万亿的以人类身体为家的细菌细胞所做的研究,弄清了这些微生物对我们有多大影响。新华社 2013.12.20
-------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
Author Index
Subject Index
Top Last Month
Products
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20 December 2013, Vol. 342, #6165
News Focus
Breakthrough of the Year

Evolution
The Genetic Roots of Flowering Plants

Planetary Science
Constraining Exoplanet Mass

Medicine
mTOR Inhibition Alleviates a Mitochondrial Disease

Evolution
Brood Parasitism and Cooperative Breeding in Birds
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-12-21 17:24:52 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-12-21 17:57:25 | 显示全部楼层
Science Celebrates Cancer Immunotherapy and More in Annual Top 10 List

Editors of the journal ranked cancer immunotherapy, a type of treatment that pushes the immune system to attack tumors, at the top of their list of scientific achievements this past year.
19 December 2013
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Antibodies (pink) zoom toward a T cell (gray, with CTLA-4 receptor proteins shown in light blue), giving the T cell a push to attack tumor cells. In 2013, new therapies targeting the immune system to treat cancer surged ahead, with promising but still preliminary results in people with many forms of the disease. Valerie Altounian/Science

The cancer research community experienced a sea change in 2013 as a treatment strategy, decades in the making, finally cemented its potential. Promising results emerged from clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy, which targets the body's immune system rather than tumors directly. The new treatments push T cells and other immune cells to combat cancer — and the editors of Science believe that such approaches are now displaying enough promise to top their list of the year's most important scientific breakthroughs.
This annual list of groundbreaking scientific achievements selected by Science also includes major breakthroughs in solar cell technologies, genome-editing techniques and vaccine design strategies. The top 10 list appears in the 20 December issue of the journal.

Cancer immunotherapy clinched the number-one spot on the list because, although its ultimate impact on the disease is unknown, recent results are highlighting its success so far.

"This year there was no mistaking the immense promise of cancer immunotherapy," said Tim Appenzeller, chief news editor of Science. "So far, this strategy of harnessing the immune system to attack tumors works only for some cancers and a few patients, so it's important not to overstate the immediate benefits. But many cancer specialists are convinced that they are seeing the birth of an important new paradigm for cancer treatment."
Many of today's advances in cancer immunotherapy can be traced back to the late 1980s, when French researchers identified a receptor on T cells, called CTLA-4. James Allison, now at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, discovered that this receptor prevented T cells from attacking invaders with their full force. In the mid-1990s Allison showed that blocking CTLA-4 in mice could unleash T cells against tumor cells in the animals, shrinking them dramatically.

In the meantime, Japanese researchers identified another "brake" on T cells known as PD-1. Clinical trials involving this receptor began in 2006, and preliminary results in small groups of patients appear to be promising.

Another area of interest involves genetically modifying T cells to make them target tumors. In 2011 this strategy, known as chimeric antigen therapy, or CAR therapy, electrified the cancer research field, and it's now the subject of numerous clinical trials, particularly in blood cancers.
Accordingly, many pharmaceutical companies that wanted nothing to do with immunotherapy several years ago are now investing heavily.
There's still lots of uncertainty regarding how many patients will benefit from these therapies — most of which remain experimental — and for which forms of cancer they will work best. Scientists are busy trying to identify biomarkers that might offer answers, and thinking of ways to make treatments more potent. But a new chapter in cancer research and treatment has begun and the journal Science acknowledges this fact by recognizing cancer immunotherapy as the most significant scientific breakthrough of 2013.

Each December, the editors of Science reflect back upon the major scientific discoveries of the year and choose one which they believe to be the most significant. This animation from the AAAS Office of Public Programs features this groundbreaking achievement, as well as nine runners-up that made big waves in 2013. Science/AAAS
The journal's list of nine other groundbreaking scientific achievements from the past year follows:

CRISPR: This gene-editing technique was discovered in bacteria, but researchers now wield it as a scalpel for surgery on individual genes. Its popularity soared this year as more than a dozen teams of researchers used it to manipulate the genomes of various plant, animal and human cells.
Perovskite Solar Cells: A new generation of solar-cell materials, cheaper and easier to produce than those in traditional silicon cells, garnered plenty of attention this past year. Perovskite cells are not as efficient as commercial solar cells yet, but they are improving very quickly.

Structural Biology Guides Vaccine Design: This year, researchers used the structure of an antibody to design an immunogen — the main ingredient of a vaccine — for a childhood virus called respiratory syncytial virus that hospitalizes millions each year. It was the first time that structural biology led to such a powerful tool for fighting disease.

CLARITY: This imaging technique, which renders brain tissue transparent and puts neurons (as well as other brain cells) on full display, changed the way that researchers look at this intricate organ in 2013.



Watch Science News video coverage of this year's breakthrough and runners-up, as well as a behind-the-scenes look at the Science editorial team's selection process.

Mini-Organs: Researchers made remarkable progress growing mini, human-like "organoids" in vitro this year. These included liver buds, mini-kidneys and tiny brains. Such miniaturized human organs may prove to be much better models of human disease than animals.

Cosmic Rays Traced to Supernova Remnants: Although they originally detected cosmic rays 100 years ago, scientists haven't been sure where the high-energy particles come from in outer space. This year, they finally tied the rays to debris clouds left by supernovae, or exploding stars.

Human Cloned Embryos: Researchers were able to derive stem cells from cloned human embryos this year after realizing that caffeine plays an important role in the process, stabilizing key molecules in delicate, human egg cells.

Why We Sleep: Studies with mice showed that the brain cleans itself — by expanding channels between neurons and allowing more cerebrospinal fluid to flow through — much more efficiently during sleep. The finding suggests that restoration and repair are among the primary purposes of catching Zs.

Our Microbes, Our Health: Research on the trillions of bacterial cells that call the human body home made it clear how much these microbes do for us. "Personalized" medicine will need to take these microbial tenants into account in order to be effective.

原文地址:http://www.aaas.org/news/science-celebrates-cancer-immunotherapy-and-more-annual-top-10-list 2013.12.19
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